OPINION: Reflections on PlanCC and the future of climate compatible development in Peru
Mireya Villacis, CDKN’s Peru Country Programme Manager, reviews the PlanCC project and considers the climate compatible development landscape in Peru in the future.
When I joined CDKN in August 2015 as Peru Country Programme Manager, Plan CC, a project led by the Peruvian government, was starting its second phase. At the time climate change was seen as a purely environmental issue, and a burden for development and economic growth. Given the context, it was interesting to see this project managing to start a process that involved the public sector, private sector and civil society in analysing the implications and feasibility of transitioning into a low-carbon economy. PlanCC also contributed to mainstreaming the development of policies, instruments, incentives and measures for the prevention and minimization of climate change-related risks.
The PlanCC project formally garnered recognition through a government mandate issued by the Ministry of Economy and Finance, the Ministry of Environment, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the National Centre for Strategic Planning. These Ministries made a compromise to be part of the Steering Committee of PlanCC. Over the course of 2015, the Plan gained interest as demonstrated by the enlargement of the PlanCC Steering Committee. It grew to include the Ministry of Energy and Mining, Ministry of Production, Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Transport and Communications, all of whom became constituents of the guiding body for implementation.
PlanCC phase I generated a scientific evidence base to: assess the impacts of climate change, build macroeconomic scenarios, evaluate mitigation options and assess the feasibility of implementing those mitigation measures. During this phase, between 2012 and 2014, PlanCC`s main results were:
- A set of mitigation scenarios up to 2021 and 2050.
- 77 sector mitigation actions for achieving those scenarios, some of which were included in Peru’s submission to the Paris climate summit of 2015, its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC).
- An assessment of the risks and opportunities of low carbon development.
- An assessment of the positive and negative effects of mitigation measures on: GDP, productivity, employment and competitiveness (including exports), distribution of income, reduction of poverty, health and the environment.
- Defined roles for key stakeholders: public sector, private sector and civil society.
Between 2015 and 2016, phase II of PlanCC aimed to develop policies and instruments to reduce the impact of climate change. The 77 options or mitigation projects proposed during phase I were intended to result in multiple benefits for the private sector and society, across the following sectors: energy, transport, industrial processes, agriculture, forestry and waste.However, it was recognised that implementing these mitigation projects could present a series of obstacles or barriers: technical, informational or lack of political will. For this reason, during phase II, methodologies to overcome barriers, mobilise actors, link strategies and inspire policy makers were developed and tested.
These methodologies included:
- Methodology to involve relevant stakeholders.
- Calculation and analysis methodologies to identify enabling conditions and co-benefits from the national climate plans – the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs).
- Communication and advocacy strategy.
According to the project team, the lessons learned from these methodologies were the following:
- 1. Implementing the project with a participatory methodology by allowing the involvement of key actors from different interest groups (public, private, academia, civil society and international cooperation) was key to receive valuable inputs and strategic information. It also guaranteed the continuity of the process and the implementation of the initiatives.
- 2. Producing strategic information through rigorous and transparent investigation, generated confidence in actors, and provided credibility and relevance to the project. The information and methodologies generated in phase II has been used permanently by officials, academics and other key actors.
- 3. Having a communication strategy and converting the results of research into user friendly graphs allowed key actors to use strategic information and materials produced by the project. Drawing on the experience of phase I of the project, a big effort was made to summarize and reflect the information produced in infographics and a video.
Overall, the PlanCC project has demonstrated the importance of integrating scientific evidence and multi-stakeholder participation to address the complex, urgent and multiscalar challenge of climate change mitigation, by mobilising efforts towards a common vision and linking mitigation strategies to development projects. For example, information from PlanCC was included in the country`s 3rd National Communication for the UNFCCC. This document was presented by the former Minister of Environment, Manuel Pulgar Vidal. The most important points highlighted by the Minister were:
- The county`s capacity to generate and organise robust information.
- The alignment of the 3rd communication with the Paris agreement, and the important role of this document, to fulfill the country`s commitment through its NDC.
- The fact that the 3rd communication is a key piece to accomplish national and global strategies such as the National Strategy for Climate Change and the Sustainable Development Goals.
- Within the country’s commitments, the recognition of finance as an integral matter, and the opportunity presented by blended funding – from public and private sources – as a new paradigm.
The Minister emphasised Peru`s capacity and enthusiasm to remain a global leader in response to climate change, and he expressed his gratitude to CDKN for supporting the country in this process.Finally, the PlanCC project organised a closing event in Lima, in February 2017. At the event the contribution of PlanCC to climate compatible development in Peru was discussed. Three key elements of the project were acknowledged: the support provided by the CDKN project to the Peruvian government for developing Peru’s INDC; the exploration of viable alternatives to achieve and implement Peru’s NDC; and the generation of high quality and reliable knowledge on climate change.
For CDKN, supporting this project meant being part of Peru´s long-term transition to a low-carbon and climate-resilient economy, through integrating climate compatible development into strategic planning and the economic agenda. CDKN has also promoted public and private investment in implementation, an aim that still has a long way to go but that is well on track. For me it has been a privilege to witness a sustained project with clear results and impacts. Looking forward I consider that PlanCC has set important foundation for the implementation of the NDCs which is the World´s biggest challenge of our time.
This opinion is shared by Rosa Morales, Director of Climate Change and Water Resources of the Ministry of the Environment, who in the closing event emphasised the current importance of PlanCC’s legacy. This is notable for the Climate Change Multisectoral Working Group who will continue to work on the implementation of Peru’s NDC. Other stakeholders also saw PlanCC as an important legacy for Peru.
Here are some testimonies:
“PlanCC left a great legacy of a robust and widely supported evidence base for ambitious climate action in Peru, opening great opportunities for implementation and a future low carbon economy” – Harald Winkler, Energy Research Centre Director – University of Cape Town, South Africa
“PlanCC is an outstanding climate project in its combination of the quality stakeholder led process, good analysis and effective communication (who can forget that there are 77 mitigation options?). It has led to one of the most credible NDCs that has the potential to drive transformation in key sectors of Peru’s economy…” – Sam Bickersteth, CEO – Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN), UK
“PlanCC was able to ensure a strong buy-in to Peruvian NDC and is now helping to implement it and to increase its long-term ambition over time” – Emilio La Rovere, Coordinator of Centro Clima – Universidad Federal de Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
“I am a fan of Plancc. Seldomly we have seen such a multisectoral and multidisciplinary effort to understand and implement solutions for a global problem like climate change” Geoffrey Cannock, Socio y Director de Economía Aplicada – Apoyo Consultoría, Perú