COP19: Follow our daily updates from the team in Warsaw
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Read the latest CDKN news from COP19. You can also follow our daily updates on Facebook and Twitter as the action continues.
Post COP analysis
Kinga Lodge of CDKN’s Negotiations Support Team reports on one of the most notable outcomes from the international climate talks in Warsaw – a package for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) in tropical forest countries – COP19 delivers a Warsaw Framework for REDD+ Action
Kiran Sura, CDKN’s Head of Advocacy Fund, provides a round-up of what governments achieved during international climate talks in Warsaw – COP19: Countries leave plenty of work to do before 2015 climate deal
Day Twelve: 22 November 2013
6:30 GMT: Geoff Barnard, CDKN’s knowledge management strategy advisor, and coordinator of the Climate Knowledge Brokers (CKB) Group, reflects on the recent side event he chaired at COP 19 showcasing the work of the CKB Group.
Day Eleven: 21 November 2013
16:00 GMT: CDKN has issued full news releases about the Indian and Mozambican winners of the UNFCCC Lighthouse Awards, both of whom have received CDKN support for their on-the-ground work. Read the news releases here:
11:20 GMT: Coverage released of yesterday’s successful Climate Knowledge Brokers’ side event
Yesterday, Geoff Barnard of CDKN chaired a well-attended side event in Warsaw organised by the Climate Knowledge Brokers’ Group and captured in text and pictures by the Earth Negotiations Bulletin (ENB).
Download the Summary of the CKB side event in text and pictures.
The event was also filmed by ENB and an edited clip of the highlights is available for viewing:
Mr Barnard’s engaging presentation is available for viewing as a movie file on youtube:
Mr Barnard warned against the risks of Portal Proliferation Syndrome. He encouraged other ‘brokers’ of climate and development knowledge online – that is, web managers who publish a mix of amalgamated content from many sources – to join the Climate Knowledge Brokers Group and understand how existing initiatives can link up, and how they can serve online users better.
Anne Hammill of IISD presented the results of her CDKN-supported research into online users’ demands – and which sources they really trust. Fatema Rajabali of IDS explained the Knowledge Navigator, a widget that web managers can install on their websites, which allows users to search for the most suitable sources of climate knowledge. Florian Bauer of REEEP explained the importance of consistent tagging of online climate, energy and development data online to enable smarter searches by users. He demonstrated the power of the REEGLE tagging API which can take an organisation’s electronic resources (eg, publications in pdf) and tag their content with terms from a standard thesaurus that his organisation has developed. “There is a strong need in terms of how we categorise things, and tag things,” he said. “Of course it is difficult to get the editors and writers to use consistent terminology. That is kind of impossible if you are spread over the world, so we need an automated system. If you have a lot of unstructured information, you can automatically submit this to the tagging API and there is no manual input needed. We can turn pure info into knowledge!”
All of the showcased initiatives were supported by CDKN innovation funding during 2011-13, and were joint projects by members of the Climate Knowledge Brokers’ Group. Mr Barnard concluded that further such initiatives were sorely needed to bring coordination to the online knowledge sector – and to reduce wasteful duplication. The CKB Group is seeking new funding to establish a Secretariat and further joint projects of this kind.
9:00 GMT : How can chairs and facilitators help build consensus in the UNFCCC?
Nadia Schweimler and Dan Hamza-Goodacre reflect on an earlier CDKN side event (Friday 15th):
CDKN and the Meridian Institute are working together to explore the concept of consensus-building in the international climate negotiations. We have explored the theoretical underpinnings of consensus, and how to help negotiators find practical ways to achieve consensus. As the first week of COP19 drew to a close, a small group of current and ex-negotiators, chairs and facilitators, including Tony la Vina, Chris Dodwell and Edward Cameron, gathered to discuss the role of chairs and facilitators in the UNFCCC. Participants agreed that the role of the chair was paramount to building consensus, and had grown in importance in recent years.
Overall, the group concluded that four factors determine whether or not a chair will be able to build consensus effectively: selection, skill, support and succession.
(1) Selection: The selection of the right person for the job is key. The chair must not only have a good command of the subject matter, but must also have good standing in the talks more generally.
(2) Skill: Building consensus requires the chair to have the right skills, to understand the dynamics of the discussion, and keep talks moving forward productively and in a timely manner.
(3) Support: The chair relies on support from those in the room, as well as from those externally. This support goes towards building a robust understanding of positions, and the political landscape of the talks.
(4) Succession: importantly, participants highlighted that chairs would benefit greatly from transition planning to allow outgoing chairs to impart to their successors the critical knowledge needed work effectively towards consensus.
In the coming months, CDKN and the Meridian Institute will reach out to other key stakeholders. We plan to produce a paper on lessons learned and case studies, to assist chairs and facilitators in their consensus-building roles.
Day Ten: 20 November 2013
19:15 GMT: CDKN partners receive UNFCCC Lighthouse Awards in Warsaw
Two CDKN partners received the prestigious UNFCCC Momentum for Change Lighthouse Awards at COP19 in Warsaw today in recognition of their ground-breaking work to deliver climate compatible development: the Gorakhpur Environmental Action Group (India – for their broader suite of work, including that which CDKN has supported) and Public Private People Partnership for Climate Compatible Development (Maputo, Mozambique).
According to the UNFCCC Secretariat, which runs the awards, “Momentum for Change provides a public platform to highlight broad-ranging climate change actions that are already achieving tangible results on the ground. By shining light on inspiring and transformational mitigation and adaptation activities, Momentum for Change aims to strengthen motivation, spur innovation and catalyse further change towards a low-emission, high resilient future.”
Day Nine: 19 November 2013
19:00 GMT: Sam Bickersteth, CDKN’s Chief Executive, celebrates the UNFCCC’s official ‘Gender Day’ with this reflection on the newly released Environment and Gender Index, www.environmentgenderindex.org
The ground-breaking Environment and Gender Index (EGI) monitors gender equality and women’s empowerment in the environmental arena. It aims to measure progress, improve information and empower countries to take steps for gender equality and environment.
Lorena Aguilar, senior advisor to the IUCN Gender Programme, told the audience this morning how the EGI was born in the Himalayas. She recalled how IUCN had been working with Nepali women on natural resource conservation projects but they asked her team: “how will you know if these projects have changed our lives?” As a result, this ambitious intitiative was born, an initiative that – Ms Aguilar was at pains to stress – does not look at women as victims but as contributors to economic empowerment and productivity.
Twenty seven indicators across six categories measure women’s role and access to resources in environment-related sectors such as forestry, agriculture, water, energy, marine environment, disasters and infrastructure; and measure the degree to which women are represented in negotiating global environmental agreements such as the UNFCCC instruments and other forms of environmental decision-making.
Ana Chichava, Deputy Minister for Environmental Affairs in Mozambique, welcomed the EGI as a measure of women’s participation in environmental decision-making and management. Mozambique is 55th among the 72 countries measured, largely because, she said, “Mozambique ranks low in female literacy and access to improved water and sanitation. This means women’s resilience is jeopardised. Women comprise those in the most fragile positions and that places them at the frontline of coping with climate change impacts.” However, this evident ‘room for improvement’ would spur her government to action, she added: “We take our commitments and our performance in the index seriously. We want to see women not just as beneficiaries of climate investments but as active participators and innovators.”
Tarja Halonen , President of Finland (2000-2012), drew laughs when she praised the index for introducing competition among countries – “What? Finland is ranked equal with France, really?” she joked. On the serious side, she called today “a great day because we have now achieved something we have worked for, for a long time.” She also criticised the ‘tyranny of GDP’ and emphasised the importance of indicators such as the EGI, alongside such composite indicators as UNDP’s Human Development Index, for measuring wellbeing in a more holistic way.
As the index’s research directors pointed out, there is not a direct correlation between GDP per capita and EGI ranking: Mongolia has a per capita income of US$3,600/year and is in 25th place on the EGI; Saudi Arabia has a per capita income of more than US$25,000/year and is far below Mongolia at 56th place on the EGI.
The highest-ranking countries for the index as a whole are Iceland (number one), Netherlands and Norway. Panama is the highest-ranked Latin American country in 17th place; South Africa is the highest African country in 18th place; Mongolia is the highest-ranked Asian country. Just about every country has areas where it is doing relatively well for women and the environment, but areas where it can improve. For instance, Mongolia performs very well overall, but has a low score for women’s participation in public policy making and protection of property rights. Host country Poland is top-ranking among OECD countries for women’s role in protecting ecosystems, but it obtains a low score for women’s ability to make their livelihood in natural resource sectors and guard their environmental health.
This ambitious initiative brings critical metrics to the gender and sustainability debates and can move us from generalities to policy actions and mobilise leadership on gender in the critical period to 2015.
11:30 GMT: Mairi Dupar reports on the power of games to get people thinking about their climate vulnerability following the Development & Climate Days side event run by the Red Cross Red Crescent Climate Centre and IIED – Can beans and dice change lives? The potential of serious, fun games.
11:00 GMT: Our content partners Eldis, who are currently in Warsaw, have produced a ‘Storify’ on the potential of climate actions to achieve the Millenium Development Goals.
Day Eight: 18 November 2013
15:00 GMT: Today, in Warsaw, authors from the Green Growth Best Practice Initiative, which is co-sponsored by CDKN, the European Climate Foundation and Global Green Growth Institute, presented the initial findings of their assessment. The GGBP’s Director, Ron Benioff, explained why the Initiative’s time has come:
“Many green growth initiatives around world but not yet a systematic analysis of what is working and what is not. That is why GGBP was launched in October 2012. The aim is to improve the quality, effectiveness and uptake of green growth planning and implementation by identifying and sharing best practices of green growth planning and implementation from around the world.”
Mr Benioff described how initial reviews by the OECD, UNEP, the World Bank, and UNESCAP of the various national green growth, green economy, low emission, low carbon and climate resilient development processes being undertaken, reveal that there is no single model. Many countries are carrying out common processes in developing their approach:
1. Planning and coordination through a high level mandate, active stakeholder engagement, coordination across agencies and levels of government, and development of effective monitoring and evaluation cycles.
2. Analysis and communication of goals, options, and pathways considering impacts, costs, and trade-offs.
3. Development and implementation of integrated policy portfolios to redirect investment flows, internalise environmental costs, build demand and consumer acceptance, and mobilise public and private resources.
The GGBP study, which is expected to be launched in the first half of 2014, is organised according to the broad categories above. At today’s event, Mr Benioff, GGBP Chair Bert Metz and a panel of authors including CDKN senior advisor Stefan Raubenheimer shared the initial findings. Mr Raubenheimer, who is lead co-author on the planning section of the report, said that he considered a policy’s robustness and sustainability as measures of green growth effectiveness. “Your process is always going to be under threat of change – from elections, also new technologies and global process. How does one create longevity? There are good results of the institutionalisation of these [green growth] processes but no one has completely cracked this,” he said.
Download the 8-page document: Green Growth Best Practices Briefing: Initial Findings.
Day Seven: 17 November 2013
22:00 GMT: CDKN’s latest report from Development and Climate Days 2013 highlights the potential of music – and other communications that actively engage the audience – to generate more effective, collective action on climate change. Read the feature Music offers a breakthrough for communicating on climate change – and follow related coverage on the Red Cross Red Crescent Climate Centre’s website.
16:00 GMT: At Development & Climate Days 2013, Mairi Dupar of CDKN heard how Typhoon Haiyan has affected Filipinos’ thinking about disaster risk management:
Participants in Development & Climate Days heard how the recent super typhoon in the Philippines has created a new sense of unity and solidarity in affected communities – but its sheer magnitude has also shaken the self-confidence of Filipinos to prepare for climate disaster. Donna Lagdameo of the Philippines Red Cross left her country for Warsaw just as Manila was touched by the outer edges of the storm. “Disaster risk reduction is important but not enough,” Ms Lagdameo reflected. “The loss and damage we are suffering is not just in livelihood and shelter. We are seeing damages in governance structures because of the inability to respond to this kind of catastrophe. The Philippines has institutionalised DRR for years but we see with Haiyan that it’s crumbling little by little, not just because of the magnitude but because people are beginning to doubt themselves. It is affecting everyone.” Once the initial, difficult work of relief is achieved, though, “we could use this experience of thinking about deeper losses and damages,” she said. And on the positive side, she emphasised, “I will say that it is making us united more, we are really helping each other.”
9:00 GMT: Equity is a central piece of the new, international climate agreement that will be decided under the UNFCCC in 2015. At this year’s Conference of the Parties, WRI and CDKN have launched a new paper looking at various trade, human rights, and environmental regimes – such as the Montreal Protocol -to see how they address equity, drawing out the lessons that the UNFCCC can learn from these regimes.
Equity Lessons from Multilateral Regimes for the New Climate Agreement by Paul Joffe, David Waskow, Kate DeAngelis and Wendi Bevin reveals that equity has been critical to achieving consensus and can neither be eliminated from the negotiations nor solved in isolation.
Day Six: 16 November 2013
19:00 GMT: Mairi Dupar, CDKN’s Global Public Affairs Coordinator, attended a rich knowledge exchange on climate adaptation among Global Environment Facility (GEF) managers at the Development and Climate Days 2013 in Warsaw. The discussion revealed how one success breeds another.
10:00 GMT: ODI’s Natasha Grist outlines three new ideas to help raise agriculture’s profile within climate change debates.
Day Five: 15 November 2013
17:00 GMT: Fran Walker of CDKN reports on climate finance related activity during this first week of the COP:
CDKN’s climate finance team have had a busy week in Warsaw meeting with our project partners and recipients, and hearing first-hand some of the impacts of our work. Last night the Overseas Development Institute held their official side event to launch their new climate finance study Mobilising International Climate Finance: Lessons from the Fast-Start Finance Period. Henriette Imelda (Institute for Essential Services Reform, Indonesia) spoke at the event to give an overview of CDKN’s Climate Finance Advisory Service (CFAS) and Seyni Nafo, a panellist from the Mali delegation, spoke of the value it brings to delegates at climate finance meetings, through informative briefings, rapid responses to technical questions, and daily updates.
In the negotiations the CFAS team are keeping up with climate finance developments and interventions:
On Monday 11th at the COP opening plenary several country groups highlighted the need for the Green Climate Fund (GCF) to become operational. Several more remarked that a clear pathway and concrete action are required to meet the Parties’ commitment to provide US$100 billion a year in climate finance to developing countries by 2020. It was also interesting to see one developing country presenting a specific proposal for a feed-in tariff programme, for which it would need financial support from developed countries.
On Tuesday 12th in the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action meeting (ADP) two country groups called for developed countries to fulfil their finance commitments. Another group of developing countries highlighted that financing should be additional to development aid and should be public with private financing being supplementary. This issue was raised again at ODI’s side event by a developing country observer, highlighting a concern that climate finance could reduce the amount of finance available for social development.
On Wednesday 13th the COP began to address climate finance matters in more detail. On the Long-Term Finance Work Programme some developing countries highlighted the importance of predictability and adequacy in the provision of climate finance and emphasized the need for clarity on long-term finance for a successful 2015 agreement. On a way forward, two developing country groups suggested a renewed extension of the work programme, while one emerging economy proposed the establishment of a permanent working group of high-level finance officials. On the GCF, the importance of financing for adaptation was highlighted. One developed countries’ group reaffirmed that several of its members stand ready to provide contributions to the GCF once the necessary preconditions are achieved. On the Standing Committee on Finance (SCF) two developing country groups praised the transparency and openness of the work of the SCF and underlined the need for the SCF to address Measuring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) as well as the Biennial Assessment of overall climate finance flows for the upcoming year.
For regular summaries of climate finance progress at COP19 and future climate finance meetings remember to sign up to the CFAS mailing list at www.cdkn.org/cfas
12:15 GMT: CDKN and Ricardo-AEA publish a new paper ‘Supporting climate negotiations – examining the evidence.’ The paper draws on the findings of a study commissioned by CDKN and undertaken by AEA-Ricardo which reviews the existing evidence base and a range of case studies to (i) understand how effective past and present negotiation support efforts have been, and (ii) how to strengthen future negotiation support efforts.
11:00 GMT: Ari Huhtala, CDKN’s Director of Policy and Programmes, reports from yesterday’s NAMA Partnerships side event in Warsaw:
Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action plan (NAMAs) were introduced as a concept a few years ago and after random attempts by developing countries, donors and support organisations to take action in developing them, good progress seems to have been made in creating a useful community of practice to bring this concept forward. The NAMA Partnership side event, held on 14 November, discussed a range on initiatives by institutions such as UNEP RISOE, UNDP, IISD and JICA in developing a structure and standards for policy-oriented and more project-specific NAMAS, and examples of support programmes in a few countries. KfW presented the NAMA Partnership Working Group on Finance which has brought together another representative group of players. Their aim is to map financial opportunities for NAMA developers. There are already more than 40 registered NAMAs and there could be thousands more to follow; all of these developers are seeking resources for implementation.
The challenge now is to ensure that the tremendous efforts in preparing these plans anchored in national priorities and based on a systematic process of consultations and design. NAMAs should not become another form of CDM projects. Hopefully the current momentum will be matched with corresponding resources and that a well-prepared bankable NAMA attracts the attention of financiers, not only from the small pool of dedicated funds but from the much larger pool of climate and non-climate grant, concessional, commercial and carbon trading facilities.
10:00 GMT: What are the gender gaps in climate change mitigation? Based on research sponsored by CDKN, this is the question WEDO, GGCA and ENERGIA answer in their new publication: Exposing gender gaps in financing climate change mitigation – and proposing solutions, CDKN is pleased to join the partners in launching these factsheets in Warsaw. Don’t miss our joint side event, a fireside chat on Tuesday 19th at 20:15 in the Torun Room.
Day Four: 14 November 2013
15:00 GMT: Join us this evening for Climate Finance: Charting the Road to Paris – A side event at COP19 in Warsaw
Thursday November 14th, 20:15-21:45 in Room Turon
What role could the delivery of effective climate finance play in securing an ambitious deal to avoid catastrophic climate change? Please join us for an event reflecting on progress in effectively deploying climate finance, and options for scaling up and using finance to support low carbon and climate resilient development in the 2015 agreement.
Chair: Kevin Watkins, Executive Director, ODI
Presentation: Scale and Effectiveness – Lessons from Fast Start Finance
Panel Discussion: Charting the road to Paris – sharing perspectives
Spencer Thomas, Grenada
Seyni Nafo, Mali
Taryn Fransen, WRI
Stacy Swann, World Bank
Paul Watkinson, France
Shelagh Whitley, ODI
Closing remarks: The Climate Finance Advisory Service (CFAS).
Day Three: 13 November 2013
12:30 GMT: Sam Bickersteth, CDKN’s Chief Executive Officer writes about building trust in Warsaw:
The agenda for the COP19 is focussing on finance, loss and damage and building the framework for agreement in 2015 through the Durban Platform. But negotiators gathered in Warsaw know that a comprehensive and ambitious deal, which we will need to keep us within the 2C target, needs to build trust between the parties as well as incentives for action. For the developing countries progress on climate finance is regarded as critical in building trust.
For other countries mitigation action or policy development or even monitoring and reporting may help to build trust.
The urgent need to address all these elements and to take action at international and national level has been brought to global attention by the terrible destruction wrought in the Philippines and Vietnam by Cyclone Haiyan. The impassioned plea for progress in the negotiations and “concrete pledges on finance” by Philippines negotiator Yeb Sano indicates the need for additional finance today. The new CDKN Guide on Climate finance negotiations at COP19 in Warsaw summarises the substantial discussions that have occurred in 2013 on this topic but it’s the assurance of international support to countries such as the Philippines that will fill a gap both of finance and confidence. Building trust will enable the opportunity to raise ambition for stronger positions in the middle ground and a compromise that works for all. CDKN will be contributing to this through discussions at COP19 on finance, consensus building and climate diplomacy.
11:00 GMT: Following on from the success at COP18 in Doha, the Climate Finance Advisory Service (CFAS) team will once again be producing CFAS Daily Briefings. Produced at key meetings and negotiations by the CFAS expert team, the Daily Briefings will provide a concise, informative update on key discussions that have taken place during each day of discussions, substantive points of action or progress, likely agenda items for the following day or next meeting, and more. If you are interested in receiving the CFAS Daily Briefings, please sign up to the CFAS mailing list here (firstname.lastname@example.org), providing your full name and the country or organisation you represent.
Day Two: 12 November 2013
17:00 GMT: Ari Huhtala, CDKN’s Director of Policy and Programmes, attended a side event on climate action case studies, organised by TERI and chaired by Ali Tauqeer Sheikh, CDKN’s Asia Director:
The panel presented an array of examples of low emission investments in developing countries. They repeated the familiar questions of lack of private sector interest due to difficulties in providing a convincing business case, need for small- and large-scale technological innovation, and access to finance. Also, speakers highlighted the importance of linking with national development strategies. We have heard this before, for several years now. Everybody agreed that a lot is happening on the ground and that this action should give confidence to the negotiators who are struggling with the slow pace of progress. But is this on-the-ground action actually building momentum, and if not, what would it take to cross that threshold? Hopefully by the next Conference of the Parties (COP) of the UNFCCC, we can expect to hear something new that gives evidence of these refreshing examples becoming a rule.
13:00 GMT: Kiran Sura, CDKN’s Head of Negotiations Support, reports on what to expect at CoP19 in Warsaw:
Having agreed to extend the Kyoto Protocol to 2020 at COP 18 in Doha, governments are expected to start the negotiations of a successor treaty in earnest at COP19 in Warsaw. But with the formal deadline for these negotiations not until 2015, the question is can we expect much from the climate change talks which got underway yesterday? A number of issues are likely to drive discussion in Warsaw, including finance, loss and damage, the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action and procedural issues.
Climate finance: Finance is likely to continue to be one of the most heated parts of the negotiations. Developing countries are seeking a clear timetable for the capitalisation of the Green Climate Fund to the tune of $100bn by 2020. An expert working group on finance is expected to report back to the COP on work this year to identify sources of funding which could include levies on carbon markets or new taxes in developed countries. So far, only the United Kingdom, Norway and the EU have committed resources to the fund. Others are demanding greater detail on how the funds will be spent before sending money to a new UN fund.
Loss and damage: Equity is an on-going topic in the international climate negotiations and this year’s talks are likely to continue. In Doha, there was an agreement to explore a mechanism or institutional arrangement to address loss and damage associated with the impacts of climate change in vulnerable developing countries. Developing countries will be looking to advance this discussion in Warsaw, including how such a mechanism would be financed.
Durban Platform for Enhanced Action: The Durban Platform for Enhanced Action is the negotiations track where the 2015 deal, for implementation after 2020, will be thrashed out. These talks are divided into two workstreams. The first focuses on the elements of a post-2020 framework, and the second looks at how to increase ambition in the short term and bridge the gap between current pledges and what is needed. The process for reviewing national pledges is likely to be a key feature of Workstream 1. There is debate about whether it is sufficient for countries to make a simple emissions pledge or if there should also be an opportunity for countries and others to review and comment on those pledges. Some Parties insist this should only be a one-step ‘pledge’, others are calling for a two-step ‘pledge and review’ process. Creating the political space for greater ambition before 2020 under Workstream 2 will be a key focus for developing countries. Submissions from Least Developed Countries Group and the Alliance of Small Island States call for enhanced mitigation targets in the short term.
Procedural matters: The idea that Parties must reach ‘consensus’ in UNFCCC decision-making has been interpreted in many ways in the last few years, leading to uncertainties, controversies and setbacks in the negotiations. At UN climate talks in June, Russia raised objections to the Convention’s decision-making process; in a recent submission, the Russians reiterated that consensus is not synonymous to unanimity and called for “Decision-making in the UNFCCC process’ to be tabled as a sub-agenda item. This should help ensure that discussions under the Subsidiary Body for Implementation are not disrupted, as was the case in Bonn, Germany earlier this year.
12:30 GMT – CDKN’s Climate and Development Outlook (November 2013) comes to grips with one of the hottest topics for discussion at the 19th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Warsaw, Poland: how developing countries will pay for climate compatible development and how the richest countries can support them.
09:00 GMT – Participants of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 19th Conference of the Parties are invited to join the workshop, Transforming information into knowledge and climate action, organised by the Climate Knowledge Brokers Group, on Wednesday, 20 November 2013 between 11:30 and 13:00. The meeting will take place in Room 1 (Wroclaw Room) of the National Stadium in Warsaw, Poland
Day One: 11 November 2013
09:00 GMT – Ahead of COP19, Mary Robinson speaks with Mairi Dupar (CDKN) and Miran Gutierrez (ODI) how tackling climate change can have positive outcomes for justice, gender and economic development
Pre – COP19: 8 November 2013
CDKN publishes two new guides:
Addressing the barriers to climate investment which helps decision-makers select and deploy financial instruments – such as grants, concessional loans, equity and guarantees — to fund climate adaptation and mitigation activities and;
Climate finance negotiations at COP19 in Warsaw which provides negotiators with a synopsis of the key climate finance discussions undertaken during 2013 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
Image courtesy of Imogen Martineau