The role of international business in clean technology transfer and development
Policy-related literature on clean technology transfer and development has so far paid little attention to the characteristics and drivers of international companies. This paper aims to help open the debate on business and policymaking in the context of clean technology transfer by discussing aspects that influence corporate responses: sector-specific and company-specific peculiarities, as well as those related to country contexts (both origin countries and host countries to companies). It notes that most of the climate-related investments have been geared to a few emerging economies, but there is potential for extension to other developing areas. However, this requires market co-creation by joint business and governmental efforts. The paper also highlights that although viable business models are largely lacking, a variety of modalities has emerged over the years, ranging from fully commercial to primarily publicly funded and involving different types of actors and countries.