Rainforest restoration: A guide to principles and practices
The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India’s practitioners guide to the benefits and ways of restoring rainforests under the present conditions of environmental distress.Around the world, tropical rainforests are among the most threatened ecosystems today. Over 100 million hectares are lost or severely degraded every decade due to human caused destruction. The approach defined in this guide although used widely, is typically characterised by large-scale plantation of alien (locally or nationally non-native) species such as Eucalyptus, Acacia, Pinus, Casuarina, and many timber species. Planted as single-species stands (monocultures), these plantations have negative impacts on local ecology such as invading adjoining natural forest or grassland habitats (e. g.,Acacia auriculiformis, A. mearnsii), depleting water tables (e. g., Eucalyptus), or degrading habitat for wildlife. Ecological or long-term considerations are conspicuously absent in such afforestation programs.