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Urban wastewater and agricultural reuse challenges in India

Urban wastewater management has become a major challenge in India as infrastructural development and regulations have not kept pace with population growth and urbanisation. This study argues that against the backdrop of water scarcity and climate change, it is important to examine issues related to wastewater reuse more holistically and to investigate the challenges and opportunities for its safe and efficient reuse. The study attempts to analyse the current status of wastewater generation, its uses and livelihood benefits especially in agriculture, based on national data and case studies from Ahmedabad, New Delhi, Hyderabad, Kanpur and Kolkata. Specifically, the objective is to provide estimates of wastewater generation and treatment, synthesise existing data on agricultural use of wastewater, and assess the related benefits and economic value, as well as the potentially adverse environmental and human health impacts.