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Resilience of outdoor spaces in an era of climate change: the problem of developing countries

Urban planning has long been challenged to address sustainability and, recently, the impact of climate change on cities. There is also been a growing number of pessimistic reports on megacities in developing countries. This paper recommends expanding research on the interrelations between climate change, cities, culture and the way climate change influences people’s wellbeing in public spaces as a key step in developing contextual design codes for outdoor public spaces. Proposing a general framework to address climate challenges in developing countries, the paper advocates focusing on the developing world, where outdoor spaces are extremely vulnerable and available studies are scarce. The aim of the study is to explain the need for design codes for outdoor public spaces in developing countries in an era of global warming and climate extremes. A conceptual model for developing regional design codes is suggested to support human comfort and social life.