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Impact of climate and land use changes on water and food security in Jordan: implications for transcending ‘the tragedy of the commons’

Jordan is dominated by arid climate with limited arable land and water resources. This study focuses on crop production and water resources under trends of anticipated climate change and population growth to analyse how these affect water and food security in the country. It finds that recession of irrigated areas led to lesser food production and food security. Results indicate that climate change and population growth increase and intensify problems of water scarcity and food insecurity. The study underlines the need for adaptive measures to reduce the negative impacts of climate change on water resources and food security. It suggests that at decision-maker level the development of water resources to increase supply is a top priority. At the user level, adaptation measures should focus on managing the demand by increasing water use efficiency and the adoption of appropriate cropping patterns that consume less water and produce more food.