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Climate clubs and the UNFCCC

Some countries have decided to create or join climate initiatives running parallel to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The authors call these clubs. In conclusion they formulate what they call the ‘UNFCCC paradox’, arguing that it is highly unlikely that a ground-breaking multilateral climate agreement would be adopted outside the UNFCCC process. However such an agreement under the current format of the UNFCCC is likely to depend on initiatives occurring outside of its control.