This paper explores the latest evidence on the relationships between agriculture and nutrition in food-insecure regions. First, it summarises the levels and consequences of undernutrition. Second, it reviews some contextual factors that might affect the relationship between agriculture and nutrition. Third, it reviews the state of the art knowledge on the links between agriculture and nutrition, drawing on recent reviews and studies. Fourth, it reviews the key research questions that need to be addressed and suggests some methods for answering them. Finally, the paper concludes with some implications for the AgriDiet project.