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FEATURE: Climate compatible agriculture – a smart approach to poverty reduction in Africa


Half of the world’s poor people have livelihoodsSustainable livelihood includes job opportunities that are of a non-invasive type, and exclude extensive felling, heavy fishery, mono-cultures and other activities than permanently harm the environment; it also includes an lifestyle that takes care of any gives assets, such as fresh water or ... that are dependent on agricultureCultivation of the ground and harvesting of crops and handling of livestock, the primary function is the provision of food and feed., so maintaining a sustainable, productive agricultural sector sits at the heart of poverty reduction. Yet the 2008 World Development Report showed that for the poorest, GDP growth in agriculture is about four times more effective in raising incomes than GDP growth in other sectors. The challenges of feeding a global population – likely to peak at 9 billion – are exacerbated by climate changeClimate change is a lasting change in weather patterns over long periods of time. It can be a natural phenomena and and has occurred on Earth even before people inhabited it. Quite different is a current situation that is also referred to as climate change, anthropogenic climate change, or ..., and nowhere more so than in Africa. Climate change is likely to lead to average crop losses of 10-20% by 2050 in the region, and will add to the vulnerabilities of millions of Africans.

Recognising the challenges and opportunities around agriculture and climate change, African Ministers of Agriculture met in South Africa in September to push for action on Climate Smart Agriculture. With the forthcoming UNFCCC CoP17 being held on African soil for the first time, there is a strong momentum to address the synergies between the sustainable intensification of agriculture, building resilience to climate change, and reducing the sector’s significant emissionsEmissions of greenhouse gases, greenhouse gas precursors, and aerosols associated with human activities, including the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, land-use changes, livestock, fertilisation, etc. (IPCC).  Many understand that we need to achieve the triple wins of climate compatible agricultural development. But what are the necessary ingredients to reach this goal? What actions can be taken now?  How far is progress dependent on the CoP?   What are the gaps in knowledge, policy and practice?

There are many examples of triple wins for agriculture – where food securityFood security is a condition related to the ongoing availability of food. Concerns over food security have existed throughout history. There is evidence of granaries being in use over 10,000 years ago, with central authorities in civilizations including Ancient China and Ancient Egypt being ... and productivity gain, increased resilience and emissions reductions can occur simultaneously. The spread of agroforestry and shade trees in Niger, as well as the uptake of conservation tillage from Zambia to Brazil and Canada, are two large-scale examples. But increased attention to soil fertility management and land restoration, development of drought-resistant cropsA crop is any cultivated plant, fungus, or alga that is harvested for food, clothing, livestock fodder, biofuel, medicine, or other uses., examples of voluntary carbon marketalready in reegle but keep for thesaurus integration (no need to translate) schemes for improved farm and watershed management, and weatherWeather refers to the state of the atmosphere with regard to temperature, cloudiness, rainfall, wind, and other meteorological conditions. (UKCIP)-based crop insuranceCrop insurance is purchased by agricultural producers, including farmers, ranchers, and others to protect themselves against either the loss of their crops due to natural disasters, such as hail, drought, and floods, or the loss of revenue due to declines in the prices of agricultural ... all demonstrate that there are early wins to be made from climate compatible agriculture.  None of these actions is dependent on a global climate change deal, but all would be assisted by an agreement to accelerate financing for adaptationAdjustments in human and natural systems, in response to actual or expected climate stimuli or their effects, that moderate harm or exploit beneficial opportunities. (IPPC) and climate resilience (including in agriculture and associated infrastructure), and by opening up options for carbon marketsA system in which Carbon is given an economic value, allowing people, companies or nations to trade it. If a nation bought carbon, it would be buying the rights to burn it, and a nation selling carbon would be giving up its rights to burn it..  Developing mechanisms that enable smallholders to access these funds will be important.   However, the cash payments farmers receive from donors, or the sale of carbon creditsCarbon credits provide a way to reduce greenhouse effect emissions on an industrial scale by capping total annual emissions and letting the market assign a monetary value to any shortfall through trading. for reduced emissions. offer modest incentives compared to the productivity gains from adopting many of these improved technologies.

In Africa, sustainable agriculture is squarely part of the green growth agenda – with 60% of its workforce and 30% of GDP derived on average from the sector, it represents real opportunities for growth. Visionary leadership by public and private actorsThe stakeholder is a person, group, or entity who has a direct or indirect role and interest in the goals or objectives and implementation of a program/intervention and/or its evaluation. (Glossary Monitoring and Evaluation Terms; MERG Monitoring & Evaluation Reference Group and UNAIDS) is important to build confidence and leverage private finance into the sector. One large-scale example is the Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania, which is seeking to cluster investment in agriculture. The African Green Revolution Alliance (AGRA) is another initiative promoting productive investment in small-scale agriculture.

Agriculture is unlike other sectors in being both highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, but also a significant emitter of greenhouse gasesGreenhouse gas emissions cause dangerous anthropogenic climate change. Emissions include CO2, fluoridated gases, methane which are emitted by human activity such as deforestation and burning fossil fuels, and water vapour. (globally 14%, but up to 75% of emissions from agricultural-dependent economies such as Ethiopia). While the importance of food security is recognised in the draft text of the Long Term Cooperative Actions (LCA) of the UNFCCC, there has been little progress where the negotiations have explicitly focused on agriculture. In Cancun there was no progress, as a range of sensitivities emerged around trade, market mechanisms, agricultural emissions from Annex 1 countries, indigenous knowledge, MRV and safeguards for small-scale farmers. A series of African and international meetings, research and dialogues are starting to bridge the gap between negotiators and those supporting the agricultural sector. The African Agricultural Ministers called for the establishment of a programme of work that covers adaptation and mitigationMitigation refers to actions that reduce our contribution to the causes of climate change. This means reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), through energy efficiency and using alternative forms of transport and energy.(UKCIP) in agriculture, for the first time expressing a collective voice on this issue. The Communiqué was subsequently endorsed by the African Environment Ministers’ meeting at AMCEN in Mali in September, but they will now need to convince their governments to take this into the CoP so that work can begin to look at agriculture within the international agreement.  A similar process was set off in Bali around forests, which led to consensus about the REDDIt is expected that support for REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) should achieve cost effective emission reductions, as well as biodiversity and livelihoods benefits. mechanism.

South Africa’s Minister of International Relations and Cooperation and Co-Chair of the Durban CoP, Maite Nkoana Mashabane , wants a comprehensive, ambitious and balanced outcome in December. Recognising the importance of agriculture to Africa, she is committed to the sector featuring in the outcome of the talks.  As Minister Mashabane said, ‘we borrowed the land in trust from future generations’ – we therefore need to act.

New public and private investments in agriculture that build resilience and take up the opportunities of new climate finance will be needed to rise to the challenge of climate compatible agriculture. A CoP that supports this sort of agriculture could provide a helpful stimulus. More important will be a strongly led policy and institutional environment, while adequate finance and investment in research to address knowledge gaps will be needed to operationalise new approachesCore to livelihoods approaches are a set of principles that underpin best practice in any development intervention: *People-centred *Responsive and participatory *Multi-level *Conducted in partnership * Sustainable *Dynamic to agriculture.

CDKN, together with the World Bank and Government of the Netherlands, will be hosting an international conference – the ‘Global Science Conference on Climate Smart Agriculture’, between 24 and 26 October to gather the current state of knowledge and identify gaps. The conference will gather best practice, and address issues such as soil and water management, crop and livestock breeding, greenhouse gas emissionsGreenhouse gas emissions cause dangerous anthropogenic climate change. Emissions include CO2, fluoridated gases, methane which are emitted by human activity such as deforestation and burning fossil fuels, and water vapour., climate risk managementRisk. A characteristic of a system or decision where the probabilities that certain states or outcomes have occurred or may occur are precisely known. Risk is a combination of the chance or probability of an event occurring, and the impact or consequence associated with that event. Decisions ... in agriculture, institutional arrangements, monitoring, and review and verification.

Sam Bickersteth is Chief Executive of CDKN

Photo: Kenya – Ngurumo Village, CGIAR

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